Left pericardiotomy is a simple surgical procedure in which the pericardial space is drained into the left pleural cavity through a posterior pericardial incision and this procedure has been hypothesised to potentially reduce the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation 7 8 small studies and meta analyses have shown a reduction in atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery.

Sample size re calculation at the time of the interim analyses was also prespecified at the second interim analysis the rate of atrial fibrillation was found to be lower than anticipated and the trial sample size was re estimated at 420 patients details are provided in the appendix there was no futility interim analysis.

Figure 2 pleural lines a normal hyperechoic pleural line visualized between two ribs with the transducer in a perpendicular orientation b m mode of lung sliding with horizontal lines above the pleura representing the chest wall and grainy echotexture below the pleural line indicative of lung sliding.

A pfo is not a true deficiency of atrial septal tissue but rather a potential space or separation between the septum primum and septum secundum located in the anterosuperior portion of the atrial septum figure 3a b 16 it is not considered a true asd because no structural deficiency of the atrial septal tissue is present 14 17 the foramen remains.

Precordial leads may determine if it is an extreme right or left axis deviation 4 durations intervals a p wave represents atrial depolarization normally it is 2 5 mm wide and 2 5 mm high tall p waves right atrial enlargement rae wide p waves left atrial enlargement lae wide and tall or bi peaked p waves bi atrial enlargement bae.

Ama pra category 1 cme trade credit for clinical imaging reviewers the editors of clinical imaging in conjunction with the elsevier office of continuing medical education are pleased to offer an ama pra category 1 cme credit program for registered clinical imaging physician reviewers who complete manuscript reviews the eocme is accredited by the.

Introduction left ventricular mass lvm is a well established measure that can independently predict adverse cardiovascular events and premature death 1 3 population based studies have revealed that increased lvm and left ventricular hypertrophy lvh as assessed by two dimensional 2d m mode echocardiography measurements provide prognostic.

The most frequent reason for exclusion was history of atrial fibrillation or atrial fibrillation on the initial screening ecg 6004 participants were randomly assigned into the trial 1501 25.

Alwaysclau ldquo it rsquo s quite an experience hearing the sound of your voice carrying out to a over 100 first year rdquo.